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Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Preview — Alligator Heist by Ann Snizek. Around the world landmarks are disappearing, but Trenton isn't concerned about that. It's the disappearing alligators that catch his attention. Recruiting his best friend, Trenton starts to investigate.

What he finds is more than he bargained for as he finds the hidden link that the rest of the world doesn't see. Will he solve the mystery of the alligator heist? Get A Copy. Paperback , 32 pages. More Details Other Editions 2. Friend Reviews. Why bother when no one reads anyway? They skate. They have no time to contemplate. And at least once more after that, I attempted my screed. That was when a former customer was leaving the shop one day and told me, quite frankly, that he was only browsing so that he would know what to look for on his e-reader.

I told him, out loud, that I hoped he enjoyed fucking himself, because that was the only pleasure he would get out of that. However, the small pleasure I got from the look in his eye that day was not sufficient payment for the misery he made me realize was already mine. Perhaps I should have given him credit for his honesty. Like Walter Raleigh tipping the executioner to take his best whack. I find it most difficult to write directly about myself. Without disguise, making the most of so little is the real chore. But, for shame, I will try to hide the sweat. With the advent of computer-generated imagery, the most popular films are now little more than cartoons.

With the decline and decay of education, our history and literature, as well as the language necessary to understand them, have devolved to idioms, memes and iconography. With the rise of authoritarian politics, the expression of free-thought has become hate speech, and virtue signaling has replaced virtue. I read years ago that the actor Steve McQueen, a favorite of my youth, refused a movie role because he would not cry on demand.

I respected him the more. You are here, at a rest stop. Beneath the finger smudged glass, an arrow marks the spot on the highway map. The bar itself is downstage center left to right, hedged by stools. There are small tables in the space at either end, stage left and right, with two or three people at each. There is a dartboard at downstage right and two people are throwing. Jimmy Duggin, a large fellow with a certain physical gravity, is sitting with someone at a table stage right, watching the game.

The entrance is downstage left. Doreen Duggin is behind the bar stage center left. She is a good looking woman in her forties, dressed in a low-cut peasant style blouse and long dress. A television is perched high behind her. A Jeopardy type game show is playing.

Doreen sees Michael enter at stage left and addresses him. I thought I was. But of what there is to know, mankind knows almost nothing, and of what mankind knows, I know very little. I called but there was no answer. Just what I said. Names and addresses. It appears I have a bad reputation among the authorities.

Tell us, Michael, did they get anything? I was hoping they just wanted to read some of my work. Lewis warned us. Men without sentiment. Men without magnanimity. They lack the human element. Like the robots in that novel of yours. I would worry more about a City inspector. He rubs his thumb and forefinger together You pay them too little and they take the money and give you a notice anyway.

You pay them too much and they come back sooner. One of the great flaws in our system of government. I think Chief Justice Marshall saw to that in Jesus, Michael, is everything a history lesson? I need a truck. Like yours. Serious now! All you get in life is just one second on the celestial clock. You live your life in slow motion within that instant—a mere moment.

Your only chance is to monkey wrench it all, to stop the grind! You know the ancient Greeks tried just that. They had a mechanism. The Antikythera machine. The first analogue computer. It was used as an orrery to predict astronomical positions, and eclipses and the like. They had fingers and toes for that, and seasons. This was a magnificent machine! Just over a foot long, which is nothing against the sort of machines that were common to the time. And it was jammed with clockwork gears of brass. But think of that! One hundred and fifty years before Christ!

Two thousand years before anything like it was made again. I imagine that some Greek, perhaps Archimedes or the astronomer Hipparchus of Rhodes, might of used it to stop time.

Because, to the Greek way of thinking then, to know something was to see it in place, to stop it in motion. They were not stupid. They understood that the universe went on with, or without them. But to see it in one split moment of time, was to begin to understand. And more than anything else, they wanted to understand.

And I forgot to mention: we are open nine to nine, six days a week; eleven to seven on Sundays. But being closed all of a sudden in that way, on the day the FBI came for us, made more of a stir than I could have expected. And seeing those unmarked white SUVs out front at least gave some people the right idea. A Boston Post reporter who comes in frequently, Deirdre Roberts, was practically waiting at the door when I opened the following morning.

The interest on her face looked real enough. The small physical gesture of emphasis. Though she at first appeared as humorless as Messrs.

Clifford and Evans. But it was still early. Deirdre Roberts reads romance novels. The worst kind. I can bet Deirdre would be very unhappy to hear that anyone else knows about her habits in that regard. But I expect, this being Boston, she hoped I was selling a banned book or two. There was always good copy in that. Ardis remained quiet through most of this interrogation.

When I later told her that I thought everything was pretty much okay, she sounded greatly relieved—as if the proverbial great weight had been removed from that very healthy chest of hers, as if she was more worried than I was, but then she became even more unhappy when she learned that the FBI had neglected to have her stay and eat the Salisbury steak as well.

She has a healthy appetite too. But then she was already there at the shop when I came in at to survey the aftermath. And I thought she was acting a little sullen. Police, plumbers, carpenters, electricians, and the other trades generally have very poor domestic habits. I would say that I pity their wives, but that would be politically incorrect, so I will.

And the FBI can only aspire to that singular community of worthy tradesmen. As an offshoot of law enforcement, a sect, if you will, they have simply lost their way, I think. Or maybe the bad habits have been trained out of them by the progeny of Mr. There was no mess in the shop, just as there was none at my apartment. Everything appeared to have been left in its proper place, or nearly so—except of course for the business files, which they still had in custody.

It had to do with things being akilter, out of whack and in odd fettle. For instance: It is assumed by the public that the business phone we use—it has a dial, not buttons, and is made of black Bakelite, being the same exact one I had the day we first opened back in —is kept at the front desk, right beside the computer monitor, as a sort of functional ornament. Mere antique decoration. For contrast, perhaps. A bit of 20th century kitsch, or nostalgia, like the mechanical cash register. The register is far older, however, and was taken out of the back room of a defunct drugstore on Massachusetts Avenue.

Browsers are always looking over at me when I make a call on the phone. The dial, ticking back after each number is spun, and the quivering coil of the cord to the receiver, draws their eyes. The fact that the sound reproduction on this old Bell Labs model is far better than the weak and tinny dribble from my cell phone does not occur to them. Though I had to pay extra for the converter to keep it working that way. Nor do they comprehend the full value and physical worth of slowing down and letting that dial return to its resting place after each digit is spun.

Time enough to consider in advance what will be said. Because my own attitude is, and has always been, more instant communication is likely to be more thoughtless miscommunication. But this particular artifact seems to have caused the FBI some greater degree of difficulty when they tried to play with it as well. The phone was still perched at the very edge of the front counter when I arrived, almost at the end of its tether, where I could imagine some younger officer had tried to make a call.

I expect that would have been like watching one of them use a stick shift in a car. At least that much was a laugh. The computer fired up immediately but was not on the usual opening window. I mentioned that to Ardis and she said she would call Jack about it.

Jack Holt is our dogsbody and her boyfriend and thus usually at her beck and call and the one responsible for all our more ephemeral technology. What bug might be crawling inside there I had no idea, but he would likely find it. Jack is fond of such insects. We both noted that someone had gone through the place and looked at each one of the old radios we have scattered about on the shelves as filler and decoration.

This much I could tell by the fingerprints in the book dust. There are half a dozen old typewriters set out on the tops of the lower shelves to brace the book ends for the taller volumes, and these do get handled more often—especially by the kids who come in and have apparently never even seen one of those mechanical marvels before. None of the sheets were properly aligned. My immediate conjecture paranoid fancy was, again as seen at the cinema, that the Federal boys or girls had taken a typed sample from each machine to match up with any nefarious correspondence they might get their mitts on.

Perhaps an expected ransom note, or a coded message. This is probably overthinking it a bit, as that is mostly the sort of thing done in black and white movies and long before the advent of the laser printer. But then, I am not sure you can overthink the machinations of such minds. Their purposes are so entirely their own. I hear the rat-tat-tat from the typewriters periodically throughout the average day, and it is deeply comforting to me and an audible key to my pre-arthritic past. Once a year we have a story contest on those machines. I suppose a ransom note or two might have been produced.

Or a letter to some editor. A love letter. Or a shopping list. I use the computer now to write, just like the rest of my fellow eunuchs. There are only six typewriters set out at any one time. The rest of those are in the back room on the steel racks along with the boxes of overstock. Those too had each been moved as well, though that might have been done to get access to the boxes beneath.

Generalissimo Franco did not like vagrants any better than the authorities of Ponca City and loitering is still a crime in Oklahoma, or was, forty years ago. But she brushes all that away in the air, with a sweep of an impatient hand, as being besides the point. She stares into the empty drawers of the file cabinets in the back room as I open them one after the other.

The physical vacancy, so much more palpable than whatever was taken from the computer, has had a visual effect on her face. Like I said, she is solemn, but when I say anything the least bit provocative, she perks right up. She is a tall blond woman who has hit her fifties with a relative ease on the eyes of others.

But it finally occurs to me, with Deirdre standing right there, that I should think of some angle that will get a larger news story out of this situation now, sooner than later. To show you what old age can do to a brain, it took me the better part of an hour to realize the potential. Deirdre has blue eyes but they are not as royal as Mr. More of a softer hue. Periwinkle, I think. A flash of irritation will darken them, perhaps to let us know when our flippancies are wearing thin.

My immediate problem was that she was actually writing stuff down. But at least I was not alone in my observations. Ardis is an astute judge of her fellow man and woman. Her own red hair is far too bright for the dark thoughts she harbors. I seldom spot the book thieves before she does. She has a belt of one color or another in Taekwondo, but she is not so good at chatting about the relative minor significances of a Jonathan Franzen or a Michael Chabon.

And that night, the FBI was not waiting for me at home. I looked for a dark figure within the shadows of parked cars, or cigarette smoke curling somewhere beneath the gaslights on the street. The story was on the front page of the Post the next day, below the fold— nevertheless, right there in Caslon Boldface, for all the world to see. Michael James McGeraughty suspected of promoting revolutionary ideas. This was lovely. The ideas were not really mine and the FBI did not question me about a single one of them, but it was as close to the truth as the newspapers seem to get it these days.

I figured from some of the detail in the story that Deirdre must have spoken to Mr. Clifford, or Mr. Evans, after leaving the shop in a snit over my rudeness. I also wanted to give her a kiss for the word choice, though I knew that was unlikely. The bookshop was actually crowded by lunchtime.

True, it was Saturday, but Boston has always been sympathetic toward revolutionaries. Even if sympathy is as far as it gets. I suppose the regulars have heard enough from me through the years. They only smiled, or in a few cases, winked. He is not a man of many words in any case.

But then, Morris is no slouch. Her classes were over for the semester and given the state of her own economy, she was happy for the work and already at the register punching the keys down with her usual one-fingered flare. In front of her a short line of young men formed, patiently waiting, seemingly just as happy that she was there instead of me. This was fine and dandy—we were having our best day since Christmas—that is, until Margaret showed up. She has her hair cut short, same as Deidre, but the little gray in it that I always thought made her look smart has been blackened with the rest.

The hand on the hip with elbow out is a classic Margaret pose. Still pretty. She was not close to being recovered from nearly thirty years of marriage and not yet interested in any more apologies. I kept my back to it, as I usually do. But Margaret has never met Stella before. At the shop. The stage is darkened except for the light from the large front window stage left.

Ardis is already there, a shadow behind the desk, until Michael opens the front door, downstage right and turns on the lights. Card racks angle away there. The front desk and register are in an island at the right center. Packed bookshelves can be seen filling the upstage area.

Large portraits of major authors, including Austen, Melville, Tolstoy, Eliot, Twain, Wharton hang high on the walls above the shelves. At stage left there is a door embedded in the wall of shelves entering a back storage room. The storage room is partially in view. Occasional customers enter the front door, greeting Ardis. She helps those who ask. I do feel a little queasy from eating my oatmeal too fast, but that was only so I could get over here on time.

I overslept. The FBI has the cockamamie idea that I might be running some sort of subversive organization out of here. From her left jacket pocket, her hand appears holding a small notepad with the wire spiral at the top edge. A pen is magically poised in her right. Moving around the shop, looking at the typewriters and radios that decorate the shelves, and working his way toward the back room. Your guess is as good as mine. This was mostly just the stuff the accountant makes us keep for seven years to satisfy the IRS. A buzzer sounds and Michael slams the file drawer shut and comes out to the front of the shop, with Deidre trailing.

Clifford is standing near the door. Ardis is at the front desk, where she has been straightening things and looking at the computer. There are already several customers in the shop, browsing. Motioning Michael toward the door, as if for a private conversation. Michael keeps his distance and Clifford whispers loudly. And Mr. The revolting kind. They used to have firing squads and straight-back chairs where they could tie your hands behind and put a blindfold over your eyes. Now they give you a dry scrap of Salisbury steak.

Not the FBI. My biggest bugaboo is the corporations. Especially the globalist variety. I would do away with corporations altogether. If they want to be treated like persons under the law, let it be. Let the people who run them take personal responsibility for what they do. Let them declare their citizenship and pay taxes and obey the same laws as the rest of us. People can get killed in revolutions. Like Mr. Jefferson once said. What country can preserve its liberties if their rulers are not warned from time to time that their people preserve the spirit of resistance?

Let them take arms. The remedy is to set them right as to facts, pardon and pacify them. What significance is a few lives lost in a century or two? The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants. But that quote was said later. In , I think. Jefferson had just seen a copy of the newly minted Constitution while he was in Paris. Your Mr.

Jefferson owned slaves himself. There it is! The hypocrisy! And is that all anyone knows about Thomas Jefferson these days? Is relativism all they teach in school anymore? Or, worse, the unlikely chance that he might have taken immoral liberties with a slave? And the Constitution was certainly not the word of God, even if some people act as if it might be. But they did believe the idea of liberty that they were attempting to define was God given.

The rights they advocated were inalienable. They say it over and over again to make the point. And besides, just two generations later that one terrible flaw was bad enough that it was the cause for a whole lot more pain and cost a few hundred thousand more lives—more than the original Revolution itself. If you mean some sort of revolution? Something ought to be done. How about taxation without representation, for example. There was one representative in the House of Representatives for every 30, citizens when we began this enterprise in And that was only accounting for three-fifths of the slaves, remember, and of course only white male property holders could vote.

But there are about , of us looking for representation from each Congressman today. What about we start the revolution by getting a little more representation? That would give people a better voice in their government and make it that much harder for the corporate media and the political PACs and the labor unions to buy the favor of every Congressman. But those well tanned Congressmen with their special privileges are not going to give up their sinecures without a fight.

Why not? No better than the Peisistratids of ancient Athens. We are not slaves!

But right now we have a government that only represents itself and only acts to increase its own power. They were appointed. Selected, at best. Incumbents are rarely unseated. The two-party apparatus sees to that. Presidential candidates are puppets to special interests. Anyone foolish enough to brake their rules will be destroyed. There are no farmers or shoemakers among them.

No shopkeepers. No booksellers for sure! The election is just for show. Not much better than a poll. Oft times worse. They tell us what to think and how to think it! They make and break. The Press is only reporting what happens. Anyway, polls usually show that people are satisfied with things the way they are. So you can blame yourself for that. Being close to power gives them a thrill down their collective legs. Tell them instead what movie star is sleeping with whom.

And given the meager public school education of their readers, they may have a point. The public usually goes along for the ride. The politics of the press is pretty much in line with the elected officials, in any case. Saves time and bother. A curiosity at best. A bit of color. Certainly not as momentous as a first-term Senator standing up to his party leadership. Nobody gives a damned about books anymore.

My travails and discomforts would barely qualify as a humor piece. I was thinking about inviting her to go with me to the movies tonight. As a sort of bodyguard against the Federales. On second thought, most of you, however few it might be, should not be reading this. Worse still, I think, if you actually knew me. A novel, of sorts. An odd sort, granted, but not to be taken seriously. A mere opuscule from a minor life.

A narrative of unlikely events, perhaps unfortunate. A clothesline of fabrications strung out to dry. A bildungsroman of miseducation. A catachresis of wrongheaded parrhesia. A faction, or, more likely, just a fiction of bad ideas. For example, do you notice how human flaws often manifest themselves around human virtues? The beautiful woman who fails to develop her mind is a cliche, for a reason. Bright people too often fail to study, relying on their innate capacity to understand and thus fail the rest of their lives, while the greatest athletes are often those born with average physical abilities but an extraordinary desire.

alligator heist shortbooks by snow flower Manual

An archetype of this is the Welshman Ernest Rhys. His father and family worked the coal mines of Carmarthen and Newcastle. Though first trained in the ways there, he found his true love in books. Largely self-taught, he went to London and lived out the rest of his life as a great and provocative litterateur amongst the old boys from Oxford and Cambridge. Always poor, his keenest pleasure was in helping other authors, and he was a friend to many of the greatest in his time—W.

Yeats, G. Shaw, Edward Thomas, and D. Lawrence among them. His own writing was very good, both poetry and prose, though not perhaps of the very best, yet he never showed the sort of literary jealousy you can readily see in our own time in the pages of The New York Review of Books, for instance or almost any book review for that matter. Simple genius! This one successful effort changed twentieth century letters by more than a hundred Ezra Pounds, making the best literature available to everyone who cared, and was copied over again many times with small variation by others, including the Modern Library of Albert Boni and Horace Liveright in America.

It certainly sparked my own desire to fill my shop with the best literature that I could find—to establish my republic on existential terms as a physical rampart to my own castle of dreams. Importantly, you can read his self-told story for yourself. This essay was keenly entitled A Republic of Book s , and was, for me, my first encounter with such an idea—another reason for the naming of my bookshop that I neglected to tell the FBI. Let them find it out for themselves.

He knows nothing of the fine salt-reek in the pages of Hakluyt, or the hearty strain of the ballad-book. If over-night he had been in Nantucket with The American Farmer , De Crevecoeur, or walking the Edinburgh Canongate with Sir Walter Scott, he has a fresh vista to his street when he turns out in the morning,. In this faith, some six or seven years ago, we set out to build a new republic—a Library-in-Being, that should have in view throughout the play of literature upon life.

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The only mistake I can see there is a matter of the ages—the men and women of our time no longer read the newspapers—for good reason perhaps. There is too little worth reading in those pages as they have generally become the Pravda and Izvestia of our time. I have believed it to be a benign philosophy at root and far far from the horrors of National Socialism and the communism of Soviet purges, even if it does presage all of that horror.

At least, in that older socialism, government is not the source of good. That, Rhys believed, could only arise from the hearts of men. And literature was the tool. Ernest Rhys would not recognize the literature of our time.

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Even as a tool, it is a cheapened device made of base metal; a shiny appliance of the modern G. Near all of it is now soiled with the scab of cynicism. And given the enervated putz of a tool our literature has become, there will be no progeny. The literature Rhys loved—the novel, the essay, and poetry—those small books on a neglected shelf—are but a shade of those generations past.

The modern iterations, their pages cut to fit the pad, or the tablet in procrustean sameness, are filled with complaint without resolution, criticism without consequence, and glee at the misfortune of others. The greater excitement in words today is found in the headline, the tag line, and the click bait. The malleable photo, well shopped, is now the bleated key to enlightenment. Keep it clean. Keep it simple. Remember, you are writing for minds that had been shaped by G.

A deepened sense of sin and a heightened conception of the Divine holiness were two of the most precious fruits of the discipline of the Exile. In its place arose a conviction of the need of expiation and propitiation—a conviction reflected in the whole sacrificial system, as gradually systematized and elaborated, on the basis of the usage of the Temple, by successive generations of Priestly writers from Ezekiel onwards. In its fully developed form, as we find it in the middle books of the Pentateuch, we see how the cultus as a whole has become the affair of the community: the old sacral units, the family and the clan, have disappeared.

Great—one is tempted to say, the main—stress is now laid on the technique of sacrifice, on the proper observance of the prescribed ritual: the slightest want of conformity thereto invalidates the sacrifice; the old latitude and freedom are gone for ever. The necessary corollary is the enhanced status and importance of the priest as the indispensable intermediary between the worshipper and the Deity.

Beyond immolating the victims, the laity are no longer competent to perform the sacrificial rites. Still more characteristic of the later period, however, is the emergence of special propitiatory sacrifices piacula —the allied sin offering and guilt offering. Since it is impossible within present limits to attempt to enumerate, much less to discuss, the multifarious varieties and occasions of public and private sacrifices, it will be more convenient to follow, as before, the order of the five distinct kinds as given in the systematic manual, Lv 1—7.

The four animal or bloody offerings may be classified according to the destination of the flesh of the victim, thus cf. The second group may again he subdivided thus—. As regards neat and small cattle, the victims must be males for the most part, entire and without blemish see Lv 22 for list of imperfections—an exception, however, was made for the freewill offering, v.

For the peace offering both sexes were equally admissible , and a female victim is specially prescribed for the less important sin offerings , The animals were eligible for sacrifice from the eighth day onwards , but the typical sacrifice was the yearling. For the material of the cereal offering see below. Ezk , The ritual, as a whole, doubtless continued and developed that of the pre-exilic Temple, where the priest had long taken the place of the lay offerer in the most significant parts of the rite.

There is no suggestion in this act of the victim being thereby made the substitute in a penal sense of its owner and donor see the Comm. In private sacrifices this was always done by the person presenting them. This, the central action of the whole rite, varied considerably for the different sacrifices.

The hide fell to the officiating priest, except in the case of the sin offering, when it was burned with the flesh Ex The burnt offering Lv —17, —13, Ex — The victim from the flock and the herd was always a male— young bull, ram, or he-goat. The turtle-dove and the young pigeon of the poor had their special ritual — The victim was a yearling lamb, which was offered on behalf of the whole community of Israel throughout the world. The meal AV meat offering Lv 2, —23, Nu —16 etc. As such it appears in a large variety of forms, and may be either an independent offering, as contemplated in Lv 2, or, as in most cases, an accompaniment of the burnt and peace offerings Nu — In the latter case the flour was placed in a vessel and mixed with oil, the equivalent of our butter in matters culinary.

The dough was then covered with frankincense, when it was ready for presentation at the altar. The priest took off all the frankincense, then removed a handful of the dough, which he put into another vessel, added salt, the unfailing accompaniment of every species of altar-offering , Mk , and the frankincense, and proceeded to burn the whole upon the altar. In Nu —16 and elsewhere, minute instructions are given as to the precise amounts of fine flour, oil, and wine which should accompany the burnt and peace offerings cf. The latter rendering, which is that of RVm. Its distinguishing feature continued to be the sacrificial meal which followed the actual sacrifice.

The last was clearly of less importance than the others, since for it alone imperfect victims were admitted to the altar The modus operandi was essentially the same as for the burnt offering,—female victims, however, being admitted equally with males. Moore; see EBi iv. The parts falling to the priests, the breast and the right hind leg,—these varied at different times, cf.

Dt with Ex , Lv f. The fat was then salted and burned, while the remainder of the flesh furnished the characteristic meal. Both sexes, if ceremonially clean, might partake of this meal, but only on the day of the sacrifice or the day following Lv —18, —8. The sin offering and the guilt offering. It is not, of course, to be supposed that this element was absent in the earlier period. But, as shown by the passages now cited, expiatioo and propitiation were sought through the medium of the ordinary sacrifices.

From the point of view of ritual, the chief points of difference are these : 1. In the guilt offering the manipulation of the blood agrees with that prescribed for the older sacrifices; in the sin offering, on the other hand, the blood ritual is more complicated and varies in intensity according to the theocratic and social position of the offerer. This feature alone is sufficient to distinguish the sin offering as par excellence the sacrifice of expiation and atonement.

The sin offering Lv —, —30, Ex —14, Nu —29 etc. It may be questioned, however, whether this transference of meaning was as direct as is usually implied. Sacrifice is the Divinely appointed means by which the ideal holiness of the theocratic community is to be maintained. Davidson , and, in so far as the ritual of the sin offering provides for their expiation, these sins of inadvertence are conceived as defiling the sinner who, because of his uncleanness, becomes a source of danger to the community.

From this point of view the gradation in the victims prescribed first becomes intelligible; for the higher the theocratic rank of the sinner, the greater, according to the antique view of the contagion both of holiness and of uncleanness, was his power of contamination. It is to be noted, finally, that the order is first the removal of the defilement by means of the sacrifice, and then the Divine forgiveness of his sin as a moral offence see Lv , 26, 31, Returning to Lv — , we find that, apart from the gradation of the prescribed victims already referred to, the distinguishing feature in the ritual of the sin offering is the more intense application of the blood.

In this respect two grades of sin offering are distinguished, a higher and a lower. There some of it is sprinkled with the finger seven times before the veil, and some applied to the horns of the altar of incense, while the rest is poured out at the base of the altar of burnt offering. The victim in both cases is a young bull, the flesh of which is so sacrosanct that it has to be burned without the camp.

In the lower grade, part of the blood was smeared upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, while the rest was poured out, as before, at its base. The guilt or trespass offering Lv —, —7, Nu —8. In the earlier period it came to denote also the gift 1 S f. The references in the Pentateuch to the guilt RV or trespass AV, RVm offering are not entirely consistent in their representation of its nature and purpose. The guilt offering of the leper, for example Lv ff. Taking the most explicit of the passages, however, Lv —7 , we see that the guilt offering deals with the misappropriation of the property of another.

Provision is also made for a public confession Nu So far as the OT student is concerned, the question of origins does not necessarily arise, for the institution of sacrifice had already a long life behind it when the Hebrew tribes first entered upon the stage of history.

One fact, at least, seems to be well established.

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For the view that the Hebrews of the historic period still retained a recollection of this older custom, see Kittel, Studien zur heb. Archdologie [] , 96— For the rest the wisest word recently spoken on this subject is that of the late Professor Stade Bibl.

The motives which prompted the gifts are nowhere stated in so many words, but may be clearly inferred. The Hebrew offered to God of the things with which his own table was furnished, and these only of the best. The typical sacrifice in the pre-exilic period was the peace offering, of which the characteristic feature was the common meal which followed the actual sacrifice.

The OT is silent regarding the significance to the Hebrew worshipper of this part of the sacrificial worship. This is not the place to enumerate the difficulties of this theory when applied to Semitic sacrifice, the absence of convincing proof of the existence of totemism in the Semitic field being not the least of these. The agent is the priest, who performs the propitiatory rites on behalf of the offender. The words in italics, clumsy though they are, fairly express the meaning of this much discussed term of the Heb.

Now, although it is true, as G. Moore reminds us EBi iv. When we ask the question, in virtue of what property does the blood make atonement? We say incidentally, because v. Strictly speaking, therefore, it is not the blood but the life that is. Along other and extra-Biblical lines students have diligently sought for the ultimate basis of this efficacy of blood. Moore, EBi iv. It was at once the most persuasive of gifts at His altar, and the most potent cathartic by which the sinner was purged of uncleanness and sin. The traditional view that the blood of the sacrifice atoned for the sins of the offerer, because the victim suffered the death which the sinner had incurred, is now rarely maintained.

Nevertheless, although the doctrine that the death of the victim was a vicarious punishment for the sin of the offerer is not to be found in the legislation itself, the thought was one that could scarcely fail to suggest itself to the popular mind—a conclusion to which it was doubtless assisted by the representation of the vicarious sufferings of the Servant in Is Summing up the conclusions of this section on the significance of sacrifice in OT, we find it represented in all periods as a gift, mainly of homage to the Divine Sovereign, in the earlier period also as a rite of table communion with the covenant God of Israel, and finally in the later period as pre-eminently the appointed means of purification and expiation as the preliminary to forgiveness , in other words of atonement.

Of the ultima ratio of sacrifice no explicit statement is found in OT. His descendants long played the leading part among the priests, so that Ezekiel regarded them as the only legitimate priests Ezk , , , The name indicates the fact that is most decisive for the right understanding of the Sadducees. About the year B. That is not saying that no priest could be a Pharisee or a Scribe. Neither is it saying that all the priests were Sadducees. But the higher priestly families and the priests as a body were Sadducees.

This fact gives us the key to their career. It is wrapped up in the history of the high priesthood. For two centuries after the Exile the high priesthood earned the right to the leadership of the Jewish nation. Its moral greatness had been undermined on two sides. On one side it had lost touch with what was deepest in the being of the Jews. For the most part this was due to its aristocratic bias. The Levitical priesthood was a close corporation. No man not born a priest could become a priest. More and more, as the interests of the nation widened and deepened, the high priesthood failed to keep pace.

Its alliance with the aristocratic families made things worse. The high priesthood and the people drifted apart. No great institution can do that and remain great. From another side also—the political—the high priesthood was undermined. Owing to the mixture of Church and State the high priests were necessarily in politics all the time. Consequently the historical process, which ended by incorporating Palestine in the Roman Empire, sucked out of the high priesthood all the moralizing influences involved in the handling of large affairs.

So, undermined on two sides, the high priesthood lost the right to lead. And the party built up around it—the Sadducees—became the party of those who cared more for their own well-being and for the maintenance of things as they were than for the Kingdom of God. When we turn to the tenets of the Sadducees, it is still the contrast with the Pharisees that puts them in an Intelligible light. Pharisaism, with all its faults, was the heart and soul of the nation, the steward of its treasures—the Holy Scriptures—the trustee of its vitalizing hope.

The Sadducees stood for the tenaciously conservative tendencies in the nation. They lay under the curse which rests upon all aristocracies, the inability to realize that the best things must grow. They denied the Pharisaic doctrine of the resurrection of the body Mk , Mt , Lk. Josephus overstated things in his desire to make the Jewish parties look like the philosophical schools of Greece. The Sadducees did not deny the immortality of the soul. But they lingered in the past, the period when the belief in Immortality was vague, shadowy, and had not yet become a working motive for goodness.

They did not accept the developed faith in immortality which was part and parcel of the Pharisaic teaching regarding the Kingdom of God. And this meant that their nation had outgrown them. The Sadducees also denied the Pharisaic doctrine regarding angels and ministering spirits Ac Thereby they maintained a certain sobriety.

They even emancipated themselves from a considerable amount of superstition hound up with Pharisaism. But they paid for it by a wholly disproportionate sacrifice of vital piety. From this sketch we can see why our Lord had almost no dealings with the Sadducees during His ministry. His interests were with the common people. This brought Him into continual conflict with the Pharisees.

It was not until His popularity seemed to threaten the peace of Jerusalem that the high priest, with the Sadducees at his back, was moved to decisive action. We can also see why the Apostolic Church, in her first years, had most to fear from the Sadducees Ac 4 and 5. See also artt.

N ASH. An ancestor of Jesus Mt It existed as early as the 6th cent. In Roman times it remained a flourishing commercial city, and the eastern half of the island was governed from there. There were very many Jews in Cyprus. It was assigned to the tribe of Gad, and is always described as being on the eastern frontier of Bashan. But it is better Indicated less theoretically as being in the extreme south-east of the Hauran. On account of its commanding position it has always been of strategic importance; but it was probably never permanently occupied by any of the Israelitish people.

It is now inhabited by Druses, and bears the name Salkhad. A place mentioned only in Gn as the kingdom of the mysterious. Melchizedek wh. It is natural to identify it with Jerusalem wh. Israelite Immigration. This poetical abbreviation, however, which occurs nowhere else, may have been suggested by Salem in the ancient record, just as was the name Moriah wh. There is some similarity between the name of Melchizedek and that of the Jebusite king Adonizedek Jos , but upon the whole the identification of Salem with Jerusalem is rather shadowy. This must be a Salem near Shechem, if this reading is to be followed.

The difficulties of other suggested identifications can be got over only by doing violence to the text Cheyne, EBi , s. E WING. A Benjamite, Neh A priestly family, Neh ; called in v. A Benjamite family 1 Ch , Neh Off Salmone Ac he decided to work his way westward under the lee of Crete. The daughter unnamed in NT of Herodias. One of the women who were present at the crucifixion Mk and who afterwards visited the sepulchre By comparing Mk and Mt it has been almost certainly concluded that Salome was the wife of Zebedee, who also figures in the Incident Mt — The conjecture that Salome was the sister of Mary the mother of Jesus has no adequate support.

B OYD. References to saltpits or saltpans, or to both, are found in Zeph , 1 Mac In addition to its daily use as a condiment in the preparation of food cf. Job , and its important place in the sacrificial ritual, salt was employed by the Hebrews in an even greater variety of ways than it is among ourselves. New-born infants, for example, were rubbed with salt Ezk —a practice in which a religious, rather than a hygienic, motive may be detected. A grain of salt placed in the hollow of a decayed tooth was considered a cure for the universal evil of toothache Mishna, Shabbath , vi.

In other treatises of the Mishna we find frequent references to the use of salt for salting fish, for pickling olives, vegetables, etc. The modern Jewish custom of laying all meat in salt for the purpose of more thoroughly draining it of the blood was doubtless observed in Bible times.

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In Palestine, under the Seleucids, salt formed a government monopoly 1 Mac , , as it did in Egypt under the Ptolemys. Ezk In the developed priestly legislation, however, there can be little doubt that the presence of salt had a symbolical significance. In marked contrast to the above-mentioned employment of salt as a symbol of life, stands its parallel occurrence as a symbol of barrenness, desolation, or death Dt and elsewhere.

It may be inferred to have occupied some position on the western shore of the Dead Sea, between En-gedi and Khashm Usdum the salt mountain. It may be identified with the plain extending from the southern end of the Dead Sea to the foot of the cliffs which cross the valley from side to side and form the southern margin of the Ghor.

The subject salutes his king by prostration; the humble his superior by touching the ground with his hand, and then his lips and brow. The young salutes the aged, the rider the footman, etc. In crowded streets only men of age, rank, and dignity need be saluted Mt etc. Salutations are frequently prolonged, and repeated inquiries after health and welfare extremely tedious 1 K , Lk In the OT.

Salvation, or deliverance, of this kind is sometimes national, but sometimes also individual cf. Such external deliverances, however, it is to he observed, are never divorced from spiritual conditions.

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It is the righteous or penitent alone who are entitled to look to God for His saving help; no others can claim Him as the rock of their salvation Ps —3 , cf. When, therefore, the people had turned their backs on Jehovah, and abandoned themselves to wickedness, salvation could come only through a change of heart, through repentance. The chief need was to be saved from the sin itself. In the prophets, accordingly, the perspective somewhat changes. In the pictures of the Messianic age, it is these things that come to be dwelt on cf.

Jer —34, Ezk —28 , Hos 14 etc. As the idea of salvation becomes more spiritual, it likewise becomes more universal; the Gentiles are to share its blessings Is , 24, —12, — The teaching of the prophets bore fruit in the age preceding the advent of Jesus in deepening ideas of the future life, of resurrection and a future perfected state: of the connexion of prosperity with righteousness—though mostly in the sense of outward legal obedience, the very error against which the prophets declaimed—and in more concrete representations of the Messiah.

In the NT. In Apostolic usage, therefore, salvation is the all-embracing name for the blessings brought by the gospel cf. To expound fully the contents of this term, accordingly, would be to expound the contents of the gospel. It begins on earth in forgiveness, renewal, the bestowal of the Holy Spirit, enlightenment, guidance, strengthening, comfort; and is perfected in the blessedness and glory, in which body and soul share, of the life everlasting.

For further elucidations, see artt. Shemer , and by him made the capital of the Israelite kingdom 1 K We gather from 1 K that Ben-hadad I. Ahab here built a Baal temple 1 K and a palace of ivory Ben-hadad II. The city was again besieged in his time by Ben-hadad II. After this event the history of Samaria is bound up with the troublesome internal affairs of the.

Northern Kingdom, and we need not follow it closely till we reach B. It fell three years later; and Sargon, who had meanwhile succeeded Shalmaneser on the Assyrian throne, deported its inhabitants, substituting a number of people drawn from other places 2 K Herod carried out important building works here, large portions of which still remain.

He changed the name to Sebaste in honour of Augustus. Philip preached here Ac The city, however, gradually decayed, fading before the growing importance of Neapolis Shechem. The Crusaders established a bishopric here. It is one of the largest and most important mounds in ancient Palestine. Excavations under the auspices of Harvard University were begun in To these colonists Ashurbanipal made considerable additions Ezr , The enmity between Jews and Samaritans began to make its appearance immediately after the return from the Captivity. The Samaritans endeavoured to prevent the re-building of Jerusalem Ezr , Neh , and from time to time their subsequent aggressions and insults to the re-founded Jewish State are recorded by Josephus.

After the battle of Issus the Samaritans offered assistance to Alexander, and were allowed to build a temple on Gerizim , where they sacrificed after the manner of the Jews—though they were quite ready to repudiate Jewish origin, rite, and prejudice whenever occasion arose see Jos. This temple was destroyed by John Hyrcanus.

Vespasian inflicted a crushing blow upon them by massacring 11, on Mt. From this and other sufferings later inflicted by Zeno and Justinian they never recovered. They acknowledge the Pentateuchal legislation only, and endeavour to preserve intact the Mosaic rites and ordinances. There has been much discussion concerning this name, due to the varying forms of the Greek version.

His daughter married a priest of E-zida in the first year of his reign. It was a centre of luxury, art, and science. This it was when St. Paul touched here Ac on his way home from his third journey. There were many Jewish residents on the island, and it was one of the places addressed by the Romans in favour of the Jews 1 Mac Paul had a straight run to it Ac The town of the same name was on the N.

The island is mountainous, and has a summit nearly a mile above the sea level. It owes its name perhaps to its resemblance to Samos wh. Samothrace played little part in Greek history, but was famous as the seat of the mysterious cult of the divinities known as Cabeiri. RVm, with Vulg. The story need not be recapitulated, but certain details require explanation.

He goes down alone, meets the lion alone, returns to his home after his visit to his bride v. Perhaps the figures of vv. In ch. For v. Nothing is known of the worship of Dagon cf. Origin and nature of the story. It has been but slightly revised by the Deuteronomic editor. His exploits have only a local significance, and are performed single-handed in revenge for his private quarrels. The story evidently belongs to the class of popular tales, common to every country-side.

Every people has its hero of prodigious strength, to whom marvellous feats are ascribed, and it becomes a hopeless task to discover the precise historical basis of the legends, which in this case are undoubtedly of great antiquity. For the lion episode, cf. Ovid Fasti , lv. The conclusion to be drawn from such parallels is not necessarily identity of origin, but the similar working of the mind and imagination under similar conditions. Historical value. Politically it takes us to the time when Dan, perhaps weakened by the departure of its men of war Jg , 18 acquiesces in the rule of the Philistines; Timnah is in their hands.

There is no state of war between the two peoples, but free intercourse and even intermarriage. As already pointed out, Samson is in no sense the leader of a revolt against the foreign dominion, and his neighbours of Judah show no desire to make his private quarrels an excuse for a rising ; there is no union even between the tribes of the south.

None the less, his exploits would be secretly welcomed as directed against the common foe, and remembering that Jg 17—21 is an appendix, we see how the narrative paves the way for the more defined efforts of Saul and David in 1 Samuel to shake off the foreign yoke. Sociatly the story gives us a picture of primitive marriage customs.

We get a good idea of the proceedings, essentially the same as in the East to-day. The feast lasts for a week, and is marked by lavish eating and drinking, songs, riddles, and not very refined merriment. The whole story gives us a valuable insight into the life of the people; we note the grim rough humour of its hero, so entirely natural ch. Religious significance. It appears in the account of his birth, perhaps hardly a part of the original cycle, but added later to justify his inclusion among the Judges.

As a child of promise, he is in a peculiar sense a gift of God, born to do a special work; an overruling providence governs his acts , The essence of the conception lay in a vow to sacrifice the hair at a sacred shrine, the life-long vow being probably a vow to do so at stated periods. The hair, like the blood, was regarded as a seat of life, and was a common offering not only among the Semites, but in all parts of the world.

In Arabia the vow to leave the locks unshorn was particularly connected with wars of revenge Dt RVm, Ps As soon as a vow was taken, the life of the votary became a continuous act of religion; particularly must the body, which nourishes the hair now the property of the deity , be kept clean from all defilement; the taboo of the vine and its products is esp. Am , In the story itself no stress is laid on any such precautions on the part of Samson e. There is unfortunately little basis for the religious feeling with which Milton has invested the character of Samson. He is a popular hero, and the permanent value of the story is to be sought in its ethical lessons.

But once we recognize the origin of the story, we shall not feel bound to justify or explain away these traits, and the lessons stand out clearly. The story emphasizes the evils of foreign marriages , of laxity in sexual relations, and of toying with temptation. It teaches that bodily endowments, no less than spiritual, are a gift from God, however different may be our modern conception of the way in which they are bestowed, and that their retention depends on obedience to His laws. E MMET. Saul had hesitated about applying to the man of God, on the score of not having a gift to present, but the servant produced the fourth part of a shekel of silver with which to compensate the seer.

He further gave Saul signs by which he should know that the promises would he fulfilled, and committed him to the Spirit of God. In another narrative chs. Hannah , his mother, the wife of Elkanah , was barren. During the celebration of the yearly feast she vows that if God will give her a son she will give him to Jehovah. He is succeeded in the judgeship by unworthy sons, and Israel, outraged at their sinfulness and worthlessness, demands a king—a proposition, in the estimation of Samuel, tantamount to a rejection of Jehovah, though no such suggestion was made when he voluntarily appointed Saul.

Nevertheless he yields to their wish, hut describes in sombre colours the oppressions they must endure under the monarchy ch. Accordingly the people are assembled at Mizpah, again accused of forsaking Jehovah, and Saul is selected by lot — Samuel now makes his farewell address ch. In the first he is an obscure seer, and takes but a minor part in the establishment of the kingdom. In the latter he is a commanding and dominating figure. He is a judge of the people, adjudicating their affairs yearly at Bethel, Gilgal, and Mizpah.

Saul, as well as the monarchy, is controlled and directed by him. It is difficult to see wherein Saul was guilty. Samuel had not appeared according to agreement. The Philistines were closing in upon Saul, his army was fast melting away, it was necessary to give battle, and it would have been considered irreligious to inaugurate the battle without sacrifice.

For this rebellion Samuel informs him that his kingdom is forfeit, and that Jehovah has chosen another, a man after His own heart, to take his place. Again Saul is instructed by Samuel ch. All his excuses are rejected, and Samuel now attributes the loss of his kingdom to the new disobedience. This narrative does not seem conscious that the kingdom was already lost to Saul. The king confesses his fault, and after repeated persuasion Samuel agrees to honour him before his people by worshipping with him.

Agag is then brought before Samuel, who hews him to pieces before the Lord. After this Samuel is sent to the home of Jesse to select and anoint a successor to Saul. One by one the sons of Jesse are rejected, till David , the youngest, is brought from the field, and proves to be the choice of Jehovah ch. With this significant act Samuel practically disappears. We find an account of his keeping a school of the prophets at Ramah, whither David flees to escape Saul — Later we have a short account of his death and burial at Ramah There is also a mention of his death in ch.

This is shown not only by the fact that the narrative of Book I. The division of the Hebrew text into two books was first made in print by Daniel Bomberg in his Hebrew Bible 2nd ed. The narrative falls into three main divisions:—I. Division I. Division II. Division III. Text and Versions. Many passages are unintelligible on the basis of the Massoretic text. The large amount of corruption may be due in part to the relatively great antiquity of the text, much of the narrative being among the oldest writings in the Hebrew Bible; and, in part, to the fact that these books were not used in the ordinary synagogue services, and so were not so carefully transmitted as they otherwise would have been.

Unfortunately, the oldest existing Hebrew manuscript of Samuel dates its origin no farther back than the tenth century of our era. With each copying and recopying during the many preceding centuries fresh opportunity for error was afforded; and the wonder is not that there are so many errors, but that there are not more.

In any effort to recover the original text large use must be made of the Septuagint, which is based upon a Hebrew text at least as old as the 3rd cent. The Syriac and Vulgate versions are also useful, but to a far less extent. Sources and Date. We are here given the sources themselves, and are in large part left to draw our own conclusions. The composite character of the books is evidenced 1 by the existence of differing literary styles within them; 2 by the presence of varying and conflicting theological standpoints; 3 by the fact that they exhibit radically different attitudes towards the founding of the monarchy cf.

Achish in 1 S ff. Phenomena of this kind are much more easily accounted for on the supposition that we are dealing here with the works of different hands, than on the hypothesis of a single author upon whom alone all the responsibility for the contents of the books must be placed. This fact of composite origin is granted by all students of the Books of Samuel. In the attempt, however, to resolve the narrative into its original elements, two different schools of analysts have been formed.

To the one belong such scholars as Budde, Cornill, H. Budde and his followers find two main sources running through the books and covering practically the same ground, though from differing points of view. These sources, which Budde himself assigns to the same school of prophetic writers that produced the J and E narratives of the Hexateuch, are supposed to have originated from the 9th to the 8th cents. These two sources were then supplemented and united by editors somewhere in the early part of the 7th cent.

This, which we may call the two-source theory because of the predominant place of the two main sources, is in its general features the prevailing view at the present time. In the assignment of certain passages, however, there is considerable variety of opinion, and in the identification of the two main sources with J and E, Budde and Cornill are not followed by several adherents of the two-source view. The analysis presented by the opposing school Well-hausen, Stade, Kennedy, et al.

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Kennedy, e. The precise delimitation of the various sources and the exact way in which the Books of Samuel assumed their present form must remain for the future to determine. The unmistakable fact is that these books in their present form are due to the labours of late exilic editors who wrought them out of existing documents, some of which show Deuteronomic colouring, while others come from early pre-exilic times, somewhere about B. As compared with the Books of Kings and Chronicles, or even the Book of Judges, Samuel shows far less evidence of editorial additions and modifications.

The various sources are for the most part allowed to tell their stories in their own way. There is a total absence of any such theological strait-jacket as is found in the editorial framework of the Books of Kings. We thus have in the Books of Samuel some of the finest examples of the historical writings of the Hebrews in the various stages of their development. The books themselves are the product of a long literary history, the work of various men living in widely scattered periods.

They thus form a source-book, rather than a history in the modern sense. It is for this reason that they are so extremely valuable to the modern historian of Israel. For a correct picture of the times of Samuel, Saul, and David, it goes without saying that the oldest sources are the most trustworthy. Failure to paint original scenes and characters with a proper perspective increases in direct proportion to the distance of the narrator from the things he describes. Hence the later elements in these books are primarily of value not as sources of information concerning the times of the early monarchy, but as reflecting the point of view and the background of their writers.

The older sources, however, coming from a period within a century or two of the events they narrate, furnish us with accurate information and are among the best historical records in the OT. They are especially rich in biographical materials. They help us to see Saul and David and their contemporaries as they really were.